The exact meaning of Elohim is not known though it seems to contain the idea of strength and power. §132h), e.g. In the second creation story (Genesis 2:4b-ff) the Name of God is revealed as the Sacred Name YHVH (from the semitic root that means "to be") and expresses the idea of God's closeness to humans. Rabbinic scholar Maimonides wrote that the various other usages are commonly understood to be homonyms. To the same class (and probably formed on the analogy of אֱלֹהִים) belong the plurals קְדשִׁים (kadoshim), meaning the Most Holy (only of Yahweh, Hosea 12:1, Proverbs 9:10, 30:3 – cf. The Various Uses of the Plural-form", Henotheism § Canaanite religion and early Judaism, The New Oxford Annotated Bible: New Revised Standard Version with the Apocrypha, Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible, "Elohim as angels in the KJV only in Psalm 8:5 (8:6 in LXX)". Exodus 3:4, "Elohim called unto him out of the midst of the bush ..."), it behaves like a singular noun in Hebrew grammar, and is then generally understood to denote the single God of Israel. In the traditional Jewish view, Elohim is the Name of God as the Creator and Judge of the universe (Gen 1:1-2:4a). [31], The Greek New Testament (NT) quotes Psalms 8:4–6 in Hebrews 2:6b-8a, where the Greek NT has "ἀγγέλους" (angelous) in vs. 7,[32] quoting Psalms 8:5 (8:6 in the LXX), which also has "ἀγγέλους" in a version of the Greek Septuagint. The name commonly used for God in the Old Testament is the Hebrew word Elohim.It is also found in the singular form El and Elah.Whenever we find the English word "God" used in the Old Testament, it is a translation of this Hebrew word Elohim or one of its forms.. It is from the Asaph Psalm which begins 'Elohim hath taken His place in the mighty assembly. [51] Karel van der Toorn states that gods can be referred to collectively as bene elim, bene elyon, or bene elohim. [18] The term contains an added heh as third radical to the biconsonantal root. 430. elohim Strong's Concordance ... see HEBREW 'elowahh. during the early period of the Kingdom of Judah. Water, sky, face, life are "things which are never bound to one form."[43]. For instance, in the Ugaritic Baal Cycle we read of "seventy sons of Asherah". Among the elohim he pronounces judgment: ..."[48], In Hulsean Lectures for..., H. M. Stephenson discussed Jesus' argument in John 10:34–36 concerning Psalm 82. The major examples are: Water (מים - mayim), Sky/Heavens (שמים - shamayim), Face (פנים - panim), Life (חיים - chayyim). In the Jahwist tale, Yahweh is simply stationed in the sky, above the clouds without the ladder or angels. According to the documentary hypothesis, these variations are the products of different source texts and narratives that constitute the composition of the Torah: Elohim is the name of God used in the Elohist (E) and Priestly (P) sources, while Yahweh is the name of God used in the Jahwist (J) source. The word Elohim is the plural of El (or possibly of Eloah) and is the first name for God given in the Tanakh: "In the beginning, God (Elohim) created the heavens and the earth" (Genesis 1:1): The name Elohim is unique to Hebraic thinking: it occurs only in Hebrew and in no other ancient Semitic language. He specializes in Hebrew language and is author of the book Beginning Biblical Hebrew (Eisenbrauns, 2003). אֱלֹהִים קְדשִׁים elohiym kadoshim in Joshua 24:19 and the singular Aramaic עֶלְיוֹנִין the Most High, Daniel 7:18, 7:22, 7:25); and probably תְּרָפִים (teraphim) (usually taken in the sense of penates), the image of a god, used especially for obtaining oracles. the re-interpretation of the gods of the earliest recalled period as the national god of monolatrism as it emerged in the 7th to 6th century BCE in the Kingdom of Judah and during the Babylonian captivity, and further in terms of monotheism by the emergence of Rabbinical Judaism in the 2nd century CE. The Elohist often presents Elohim as more distant and frequently involves angels, as in the Elohist version of the tale of Jacob's Ladder, in which there is a ladder to the clouds, with angels climbing up and down, with Elohim at the top. [39] This form is known as the "honorific plural", in which the pluralization is a sign of power or honor. But in verse 6 of the Psalm, God says to the other members of the council, 'You [plural] are elohim.' Instead of "honorific plural" these other plural nouns terms represent something which is constantly changing. The Samaritan Torah has edited out some of these exceptions.[28]. [54] There may be a theological point, that God did not reveal his name, Yahweh, before the time of Moses, though Hans Heinrich Schmid showed that the Jahwist was aware of the prophetic books from the 7th and 8th centuries BCE.[56]. Gesenius comments that the singular Hebrew term Elohim is to be distinguished from elohim used to refer to plural gods, and remarks that: The supposition that אֱלֹהִים (elohim) is to be regarded as merely a remnant of earlier polytheistic views (i.e. In the Septuagint and New Testament translations, Elohim has the singular ὁ θεός even in these cases, and modern translations follow suit in giving "God" in the singular. Gesenius lists the meaning without agreeing with it. The word elohim or 'elohiym (ʼĕlôhîym) is a grammatically plural noun for "gods" or "deities" or various other words in Biblical Hebrew. [18], The word el (singular) is a standard term for "god" in Aramaic, paleo-Hebrew, and other related Semitic languages including Ugaritic. There are a number of notable exceptions to the rule that Elohim is treated as singular when referring to the God of Israel, including Genesis 20:13, Genesis 35:7, 2 Samuel 7:23 and Psalms 58:11, and notably the epithet of the "Living God" (Deuteronomy 5:26 etc. [citation needed], This article is about the Hebrew word. A NET Bible note claims that the KJV wrongly translates: "God appeared unto him". "[47], Mark Smith, referring to this same Psalm, states in God in Translation: "This psalm presents a scene of the gods meeting together in divine council ... Elohim stands in the council of El. The Hebrew term benei elohim ("sons of God" or "sons of the gods") in Genesis 6:2[50] compares to the use of "sons of gods" (Ugaritic: b'n il) sons of El in Ugaritic mythology. [11], The word elohim or 'elohiym (ʼĕlôhîym) is a grammatically plural noun for "gods" or "deities" or various other words in Biblical Hebrew. Here the Hebrew verb "revealed" is plural, hence: "the gods were revealed". God standeth in the congregation of the mighty; he judgeth among the gods. Let's take a look at the meaning of YHWH Elohim. number". [29] These passages then entered first the Latin Vulgate, then the English King James Version (KJV) as "angels" and "judges", respectively. When I judge the creatures I am Elohim, and when I have mercy with My world, I am named YHVH" (Ex R. 3:6). It is cognate to the word 'l-h-m which is found in Ugaritic, where it is used as the pantheon for Canaanite gods, the children of El, and conventionally vocalized as "Elohim". [15][16], It is generally thought that Elohim is derived from eloah,[1][2][4][7][8][9] the latter being an expanded form of the Northwest Semitic noun 'il. These other names or titles for God are sometimes called "construct forms," indicating that they are "constructed" from the base name (e.g., Elohei) with other designators. In some cases (e.g. [18] The phrase bene elohim, translated "sons of the Gods", has an exact parallel in Ugaritic and Phoenician texts, referring to the council of the gods. In a few cases in the Greek Septuagint (LXX), Hebrew elohim with a plural verb, or with implied plural context, was rendered either angeloi ("angels") or to kriterion tou Theou ("the judgement of God"). Discussions of the etymology of elohim essentially concern this expansion. [citation needed], In the Latter Day Saint movement, Elohim refers to God the Father. [18], Elohim occupy the seventh rank of ten in the famous medieval rabbinic scholar Maimonides' Jewish angelic hierarchy. Elohim ḥayyim ( אלהים חיים ) but still takes singular verbs of you [ are children... Eden looking for Adam and Eve it can refer either to the Tanakh, and like... 18 ] the term Elohim is usually understood to be the originating deity for a particular people of... 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